To attempt to set forth the origin of the Fox-terrier as we know him to-day would be of no interest to the general reader, and would entail the task of tracing back the several heterogeneous sources from which he sprang. It is a matter of very little moment whether he owes his origin to the white English Terrier or to the Bull-terrier crossed with the Black and Tan, or whether he has a mixture of Beagle blood in his composition, so it will suffice to take him as he emerged from the chaos of mongreldom about the middle of the last century, rescued in the first instance by the desire of huntsmen or masters of well-known packs to produce a terrier somewhat in keeping with their hounds; and, in the second place, to the advent of dog shows. Prior to that time any dog capable, from his size, conformation, and pluck, of going to ground and bolting his fox was a Fox-terrier, were he rough or smooth, black, brown, or white.

The starting-point of the modern Fox-terrier dates from about the 'sixties, and no pedigrees before that are worth considering.

From three dogs then well known—Old Jock, Trap, and Tartar—he claims descent; and, thanks to the Fox-terrier Club and the great care taken in compiling their stud-books, he can be brought down to to-day. Of these three dogs Old Jock was undoubtedly more of a terrier than the others. It is a moot point whether he was bred, as stated in most records of the time, by Captain Percy Williams, master of the Rufford, or by Jack Morgan, huntsman to the Grove; it seems, however, well established that the former owned his sire, also called Jock, and that his dam, Grove Pepper, was the property of Morgan. He first came before the public at the Birmingham show in 1862, where, shown by Mr. Wootton, of Nottingham, he won first prize. He subsequently changed hands several times, till he became the property of Mr. Murchison, in whose hands he died in the early 'seventies. He was exhibited for the last time at the Crystal Palace in 1870, and though then over ten years old won second to the same owner's Trimmer. At his best he was a smart, well-balanced terrier, with perhaps too much daylight under him, and wanting somewhat in jaw power; but he showed far less of the Bull-terrier type than did his contemporary Tartar.

This dog's antecedents were very questionable, and his breeder is given as Mr. Stevenson, of Chester, most of whose dogs were Bull-terriers pure and simple, save that they had drop ears and short sterns, being in this respect unlike old Trap, whose sire is generally supposed to have been a Black and Tan Terrier. This dog came from the Oakley Kennels, and he was supposed to have been bred by a miller at Leicester. However questionable the antecedents of these three terriers may have been, they are undoubtedly the progenitors of our present strain, and from them arose the kennels that we have to-day.

Mention has been made of Mr. Murchison, and to him we owe in a great measure the start in popularity which since the foundation of his large kennel the Fox-terrier has enjoyed. Mr. Murchison's chief opponents in the early 'seventies were Mr. Gibson, of Brockenhurst, with his dogs Tyke and Old Foiler; Mr. Luke Turner, of Leicester, with his Belvoir strain, which later gave us Ch. Brockenhurst Joe, Ch. Olive and her son, Ch. Spice; Mr. Theodore Bassett, Mr. Allison, and, a year or so later, Mr. Frederick Burbidge, the Messrs. Clarke, Mr. Tinne, Mr. Francis Redmond, and Mr. Vicary. About this time a tremendous impetus was given to the breed by the formation, in 1876, of the Fox-terrier Club, which owed its inception to Mr. Harding Cox and a party of enthusiasts seated round his dinner table at 36, Russell Square, among whom were Messrs. Bassett, Burbidge, Doyle, Allison, and Redmond, the last two named being still members of the club. The idea was very warmly welcomed, a committee formed, and a scale of points drawn up which, with but one alteration, is in vogue to-day. Every prominent exhibitor or breeder then, and with few exceptions since, has been a member, and the club is by far the strongest of all specialist clubs.

It will be well to give here the said standard of points.

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HEAD AND EARS—The Skull should be flat and moderately narrow, and gradually decreasing in width to the eyes. Not much “stop" should be apparent, but there should be more dip in the profile between the forehead and top jaw than is seen in the case of a Greyhound. The Cheeks must not be full. The Ears should be V-shaped and small, of moderate thickness, and dropping forward close to the cheek, not hanging by the side of the head like a Foxhound's. The Jaw, upper and under, should be strong and muscular; should be of fair punishing strength, but not so in any way to resemble the Greyhound or modern English Terrier. There should not be much falling away below the eyes. This part of the head, should, however, be moderately chiselled out, so as not to go down in a straight line like a wedge. The Nose, towards which the muzzle must gradually taper, should be black. The Eyes should be dark in colour, small, and rather deep set, full of fire, life, and intelligence; as nearly as possible circular in shape. TheTeeth should be as nearly as possible level, i.e., the upper teeth on the outside of the lower teeth. NECK—Should be clean and muscular, without throatiness, of fair length, and gradually widening to the shoulders. SHOULDERS AND CHEST—The Shoulders should be long and sloping, well laid back, fine at the points, and clearly cut at the withers. The Chest deep and not broad. BACK AND LOIN—The Back should be short, straight, and strong, with no appearance of slackness. The Loin should be powerful and very slightly arched. The fore ribs should be moderately arched, the back ribs deep; and the dog should be well ribbed up. HIND-QUARTERS—Should be strong and muscular, quite free from droop or crouch; the thighs long and powerful; hocks near the ground, the dog standing well up on them like a Foxhound, and not straight in the stifle. STERN—Should be set on rather high, and carried gaily, but not over the back or curled. It should be of good strength, anything approaching a “pipe-stopper" tail being especially objectionable. LEGS AND FEET—The Legs viewed in any direction must be straight, showing little or no appearance of an ankle in front. They should be strong in bone throughout, short and straight to pastern. Both fore and hind legs should be carried straight forward in travelling, the stifles not turned outwards. The elbows should hang perpendicular to the body, working free of the side. The Feetshould be round, compact, and not large. The soles hard and tough. The toes moderately arched, and turned neither in nor out. COAT—Should be straight, flat, smooth, hard, dense, and abundant. The belly and under side of the thighs should not be bare. As regards colour, white should predominate; brindle, red, or liver markings are objectionable. Otherwise this point is of little or no importance. SYMMETRY, SIZE, AND CHARACTER—The dog must present a general gay, lively, and active appearance; bone and strength in a small compass are essentials; but this must not be taken to mean that a Fox-terrier should be cloggy, or in any way coarse—speed and endurance must be looked to as well as power, and the symmetry of the Foxhound taken as a model. The terrier, like the hound, must on no account be leggy, nor must he be too short in the leg. He should stand like a cleverly-made hunter, covering a lot of ground, yet with a short back, as before stated. He will then attain the highest degree of propelling power, together with the greatest length of stride that is compatible with the length of his body. Weight is not a certain criterion of a terrier's fitness for his work—general shape, size and contour are the main points; and if a dog can gallop and stay, and follow his fox up a drain, it matters little what his weight is to a pound or so, though, roughly speaking, it may be said he should not scale over twenty pounds in show condition.

DISQUALIFYING POINTS: NOSE—White, cherry, or spotted to a considerable extent with either of these colours. EARS—prick, tulip, or rose. MOUTH—much overshot or much undershot.

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In order to give some idea of the extraordinary way in which the Fox-terrier took the public taste, it will be necessary to hark back and give a resume of the principal kennels and exhibitors to whom this was due. In the year in which the Fox-terrier Club was formed, Mr. Fred Burbidge, at one time captain of the Surrey Eleven, had the principal kennels. He was the pluckiest buyer of his day, and once he fancied a dog nothing stopped him till it was in his kennels. He bought Nimrod, Dorcas, Tweezers, and Nettle, and with them and other discriminating purchases he was very hard to beat on the show-bench. Strange to say, at this time he seemed unable to breed a good dog, and determined to have a clear out and start afresh. A few brood bitches only were retained, and the kennels moved from Champion Hill to Hunton Bridge, in Hertfordshire. From thence in a few years came Bloom, Blossom, Tweezers II., Hunton Baron, Hunton Bridegroom, and a host of others, which spread the fame of the great Hunton strain. When the kennel was dispersed at Mr. Burbidge's untimely death in 1892, the dogs, 130 lots in all, were sold by auction and realised P1,800; Hunton Tartar fetched P135, Justice P84, Bliss P70, and Scramble P65.

Messrs. A. H. and C. Clarke were at this time quietly founding a kennel, which perhaps has left its mark more indelibly on the breed than any before or since. Brockenhurst Rally was a most fortunate purchase from his breeder, Mr. Herbert Peel, and was by Brockenhurst Joe from a Bitters bitch, as from this dog came Roysterer and Ruler, their dam being Jess, an old Turk bitch; and from Rollick by Buff was bred Ruse and Ransome. Roysterer was the sire of Result, by many considered the best Fox-terrier dog of all time; and Result's own daughter Rachel was certainly the best bitch of her day. All these terriers had intense quality and style, due for the most part to inbreeding. Very little new blood was introduced, with an inevitable result; and by degrees the kennel died out.

No history of the Fox-terrier could be complete without mention of Mr. Francis Redmond and his kennel, going back, as it does, to the Murchison and Luke Turner period, and being still to-day the most prominent one in existence. We can date his earlier efforts from his purchase of Deacon Nettle, the dam of Deacon Ruby; Dusty was the dam of Ch. Diamond Dust; Dickon he had from Luke Turner, and in this dog we have one of the foundation-stones of the Fox-terrier stud-book, as he was the sire of Splinter, who in his turn was the sire of Vesuvian.

Mr. Redmond's next great winners were D'Orsay and Dominie, two sterling good terriers, the former of which was the sire of Dame D'Orsay, who, bred to Despoiler, produced Dame Fortune, the mother of Donna Fortuna, whose other parent was Dominie. Donna Fortuna, considered universally the best specimen of a Fox-terrier ever produced, had from the first a brilliant career, for though fearlessly shown on all occasions she never knew defeat. Some took exception to her want of what is called terrier character, and others would have liked her a shade smaller; but we have still to see the Fox-terrier, taken all round, that could beat her.

As an outcross Mr. Redmond purchased Dreadnought, one of the highest class dogs seen for many years, but had very bad luck with him, an accident preventing him from being shown and subsequently causing his early death. We must not forget Duchess of Durham or Dukedom; but to enumerate all Mr. Redmond's winners it would be necessary to take the catalogues of all the important shows held for the past thirty years. To no one do we owe so much; no one has made such a study of the breed, reducing it almost to a science, with the result that even outside his kennels no dog has any chance of permanently holding his own unless he has an ample supply of the blood.

The great opponent of the Totteridge Kennel up to some few years ago was unquestionably Mr. Vicary, of Newton Abbot, who laid the foundation of his kennel with Vesuvian, who was by Splinter, out of Kohinor, and from whom came the long line of winners, Venio-Vesuvienne, Vice-Regal, Valuator, Visto, and Veracity. Fierce war raged round these kennels, each having its admiring and devoted adherents, until one side would not look at anything but a Redmond Terrier to the exclusion of the Vicary type. The Newton Abbot strain was remarkable for beautiful heads and great quality, but was faulty in feet and not absolute as to fronts, each of which properties was a sine qua non amongst the Totteridge dogs. Latter-day breeders have recognised that in the crossing of the two perfection lies, and Mr. Redmond himself has not hesitated to go some way on the same road.

It is fortunate for the breed of Fox-terriers how great a hold the hobby takes, and how enthusiastically its votaries pursue it, otherwise we should not have amongst us men like Mr. J. C. Tinne, whose name is now a household word in the Fox-terrier world, as it has been any time for the past thirty years. Close proximity, in those days, to Mr. Gibson at Brockenhurst made him all the keener, and one of his first terriers was a bitch of that blood by Bitters. With daughters of Old Foiler he did very well—to wit, Pungent, sister to Dorcas, while through Terror we get Banquet, the granddam of Despoiler. He purchased from Mr. Redmond both Deacon Diamond and Daze, each of whom was bred to Spice, and produced respectively Auburn and Brockenhurst Dainty; from the latter pair sprang Lottery and Worry, the granddam of Tom Newcome, to whom we owe Brockenhurst Agnes, Brockenhurst Dame, and Dinah Morris, and consequently Adam Bede and Hester Sorrel.

It has always been Mr. Tinne's principle to aim at producing the best terrier he could, irrespective of the fads of this kennel or that, and his judgment has been amply vindicated, as the prize lists of every large show will testify. And to-day he is the proud possessor of Ch. The Sylph, who has beaten every one of her sex, and is considered by many about the best Fox-terrier ever seen.

No name is better known or more highly respected by dog owners than that of the late Mr. J. A. Doyle, as a writer, breeder, judge, or exhibitor of Fox-terriers. Whilst breeding largely from his own stock, he was ever on the look-out for a likely outcross. He laid great store on terrier character, and was a stickler for good coats; a point much neglected in the present-day dog.

Amongst the smaller kennels is that of Mr. Reeks, now mostly identified with Oxonian and that dog's produce, but he will always be remembered as the breeder of that beautiful terrier, Avon Minstrel. Mr. Arnold Gillett has had a good share of fortune's favours, as the Ridgewood dogs testify; whilst the Messrs. Powell, Castle, Glynn, Dale, and Crosthwaite have all written their names on the pages of Fox-terrier history. Ladies have ever been supporters of the breed, and no one more prominently so than Mrs. Bennett Edwards, who through Duke of Doncaster, a son of Durham, has founded a kennel which at times is almost invincible, and which still shelters such grand terriers as Doncaster, Dominie, Dodger, Dauphine, and many others well known to fame. Mrs. J. H. Brown, too, as the owner of Captain Double, a terrier which has won, and deservedly, more prizes than any Fox-terrier now or in the past, must not be omitted.

Whether the present Fox-terrier is as good, both on the score of utility and appearance, as his predecessors is a question which has many times been asked, and as many times decided in the negative as well as in the affirmative. It would be idle to pretend that a great many of the dogs now seen on the show bench are fitted to do the work Nature intended them for, as irrespective of their make and shape they are so oversized as to preclude the possibility of going to ground in any average sized earth.

This question of size is one that must sooner or later be tackled in some practical way by the Fox-terrier Club, unless we are to see a race of giants in the next few generations. Their own standard gives 20 lb.—a very liberal maximum; but there are dogs several pounds heavier constantly winning prizes at shows, and consequently being bred from, with the result which we see. There are many little dogs, and good ones, to be seen, but as long as the judges favour the big ones these hold no chance, and as it is far easier to produce a good big one than a good little one, breeders are encouraged to use sires who would not be looked at if a hard-and-fast line were drawn over which no dogs should win a prize. There are hundreds of Fox-terriers about quite as capable of doing their work as their ancestors ever were, and there is hardly a large kennel which has not from time to time furnished our leading packs with one or more dogs, and with gratifying results. It is, therefore, a great pity that our leading exhibitors should often be the greatest delinquents in showing dogs which they know in their hearts should be kept at home or drafted altogether, and it is deplorable that some of our oldest judges should by their awards encourage them.

Before concluding this chapter it may not be out of place to say a few words as to the breeding and rearing of Fox terriers.

In the first place, never breed from an animal whose pedigree is not authenticated beyond a shadow of a doubt; and remember that while like may beget like, the inevitable tendency is to throw back to former generations. The man who elects to breed Fox-terriers must have the bumps of patience and hope very strongly developed, as if the tyro imagines that he has only to mate his bitch to one of the known prize-winning dogs of the day in order to produce a champion, he had better try some other breed. Let him fix in his mind the ideal dog, and set to work by patient effort and in the face of many disappointments to produce it. It is not sufficient that, having acquired a bitch good in all points save in head, that he breeds her to the best-headed dog he can find. He must satisfy himself that the head is not a chance one, but is an inherited one, handed down from many generations, good in this particular, and consequently potent to reproduce its like. So in all other points that he wishes to reproduce. In the writer's experience, little bitches with quality are the most successful. Those having masculine characteristics should be avoided, and the best results will be obtained from the first three litters, after which a bitch rarely breeds anything so good. See that your bitch is free from worms before she goes to the dog, then feed her well, and beyond a dose of castor oil some days before she is due to whelp, let Nature take its course. Dose your puppies well for worms at eight weeks old, give them practically as much as they will eat, and unlimited exercise. Avoid the various advertised nostrums, and rely rather on the friendly advice of some fancier or your veterinary surgeon.

Take your hobby seriously, and you will be amply repaid, even if success does not always crown your efforts, as while the breeding of most animals is a fascinating pursuit, that of the Fox-terrier presents many varying delights.