The experienced dog-owner has long ago realised that cleanliness, wholesome food, judicious exercise and a dry, comfortable and well-ventilated kennel are the surest safeguards of health, and that attention to these necessaries saves him an infinitude of trouble and anxiety by protecting his dogs from disease. On the first appearance of illness in his kennels the wise dog-owner at once calls in the skill of a good veterinary surgeon, but there are some of the minor ailments which he can deal with himself whilst he ought at least to be able to recognise the first symptoms of the dreaded Distemper and give first aid until the vet. arrives to apply his remedies and give professional advice.


Although more than one hundred years have elapsed since this was first imported to this country from France, a great amount of misunderstanding still prevails among a large section of dog-breeders regarding its true nature and origin. The fact is, the disease came to us with a bad name, for the French themselves deemed it incurable. In this country the old-fashioned plan of treatment was wont to be the usual rough remedies—emetics, purgatives, the seton, and the lancet. Failing in this, specifics of all sorts were eagerly sought for and tried, and are unfortunately still believed in to a very great extent.

Distemper has a certain course to run, and in this disease Nature seems to attempt the elimination of the poison through the secretions thrown out by the naso-pharyngeal mucous membrane.

Our chief difficulty in the treatment of distemper lies in the complications thereof. We may, and often do, have the organs of respiration attacked; we have sometimes congestion of the liver, or mucous inflammation of the bile ducts, or some lesion of the brain or nervous structures, combined with epilepsy, convulsions, or chorea. Distemper is also often complicated with severe disease of the bowels, and at times with an affection of the eyes.

Causes—Whether it be that the distemper virus, the poison seedling of the disease, really originates in the kennel, or is the result of contact of one dog with another, or whether the poison floats to the kennel on the wings of the wind, or is carried there on a shoe or the point of a walking-stick, the following facts ought to be borne in mind: (1) Anything that debilitates the body or weakens the nervous system paves the way for the distemper poison; (2) the healthier the dog the more power does he possess to resist contagion; (3) when the disease is epizootic, it can often be kept at bay by proper attention to diet and exercise, frequent change of kennel straw, and perfect cleanliness; (4) the predisposing causes which have come more immediately under my notice are debility, cold, damp, starvation, filthy kennels, unwholesome food, impure air, and grief.

The Age at which Dogs take Distemper—They may take distemper at any age; the most common time of life is from the fifth till the eleventh or twelfth month.

Symptoms—There is, first and foremost, a period of latency or of incubation, in which there is more or less of dullness and loss of appetite, and this glides gradually into a state of feverishness. The fever may be ushered in with chills and shivering. The nose now becomes hot and dry, the dog is restless and thirsty, and the conjunctivae of the eyes will be found to be considerably injected. Sometimes the bowels are at first constipated, but they are more usually irregular. Sneezing will also be frequent, and in some cases cough, dry and husky at first. The temperature should be taken, and if there is a rise of two or three degrees the case should be treated as distemper, and not as a common cold.

At the commencement there is but little exudation from the eyes and nose, but as the disease advances this symptom will become more marked, being clear at first. So, too, will another symptom which is partially diagnostic of the malady, namely, increased heat of body combined with a rapid falling off in flesh, sometimes, indeed, proceeding quickly on to positive emaciation.

As the disease creeps downwards and inwards along the air-passages, the chest gets more and more affected, the discharge of mucus and pus from the nostrils more abundant, and the cough loses its dry character, becoming moist. The discharge from the eyes is simply mucus and pus, but if not constantly dried away will gum the inflamed lids together, that from the nostrils is not only purulent, but often mixed with dark blood. The appetite is now clean gone, and there is often vomiting and occasional attacks of diarrhoea.

Now in mild cases we may look for some abatement of the symptoms about the fourteenth day. The fever gets less, inflammation decreases in the mucous passages, and appetite is restored as one of the first signs of returning health. More often, however, the disease becomes complicated.

Diagnosis—The diagnostic symptoms are the severe catarrh, combined not only with fever, but speedy emaciation.

Pneumonia, as we might easily imagine, is a very likely complication, and a very dangerous one. There is great distress in breathing, the animal panting rapidly. The countenance is anxious, the pulse small and frequent, and the extremities cold. The animal would fain sit up on his haunches, or even seek to get out into the fresh air, but sickness, weakness, and prostration often forbid his movements. If the ear or stethoscope be applied to the chest, the characteristic signs of pneumonia will be heard; these are sounds of moist crepitations, etc.

Bronchitis is probably the most common complication; in fact, it is always present, except in very mild cases. The cough becomes more severe, and often comes on in tearing paroxysms, causing sickness and vomiting. The breathing is short and frequent, the mouth hot and filled with viscid saliva, while very often the bowels are constipated. If the liver becomes involved, we shall very soon have the jaundiced eye and the yellow skin. Diarrhoea is another very common complication. We have frequent purging and, maybe, sickness and vomiting. Fits of a convulsive character are frequent concomitants of distemper.Epilepsy is sometimes seen, owing, no doubt, to degeneration of the nerve centres caused by blood-poisoning. There are many other complications, and skin complaints are common after it.

Treatment—This consists firstly in doing all in our power to guide the specific catarrhal fever to a safe termination; and, secondly, in watching for and combating complications. Whenever we see a young dog ailing, losing appetite, exhibiting catarrhal symptoms, and getting thin, with a rise in temperature, we should not lose an hour. If he be an indoor dog, find him a good bed in a clean, well-ventilated apartment, free from lumber and free from dirt. If it be summer, have all the windows out or opened; if winter, a little fire will be necessary, but have half the window opened at the same time; only take precautions against his lying in a draught. Fresh air in cases of distemper, and, indeed, in fevers of all kinds, cannot be too highly extolled.

The more rest the dog has the better; he must be kept free from excitement, and care must be taken to guard him against cold and wet when he goes out of doors to obey the calls of Nature. The most perfect cleanliness must be enjoined, and disinfectants used, such as permanganate of potash, carbolic acid, Pearson's, or Izal. If the sick dog, on the other hand, be one of a kennel of dogs, then quarantine must be adopted. The hospital should be quite removed from the vicinity of all other dogs, and as soon as the animal is taken from the kennel the latter should be thoroughly cleansed and disinfected, and the other dogs kept warm and dry, well fed, and moderately exercised.

Food and Drink—For the first three or four days let the food be light and easily digested. In order to induce the animal to take it, it should be as palatable as possible. For small dogs you cannot have anything better than milk porridge. [1] At all events, the dog must, if possible, be induced to eat; he must not be “horned” unless there be great emaciation; he must not over-eat, but what he gets must be good. As to drink, dogs usually prefer clean cold water, and we cannot do harm by mixing therewith a little plain nitre.

[1] Oatmeal porridge made with milk instead of water.

Medicine—Begin by giving a simple dose of castor oil, just enough and no more than will clear out the bowels by one or two motions. Drastic purgatives, and medicines such as mercury, jalap, aloes, and podophyllyn, cannot be too highly condemned. For very small Toy dogs, such as Italian Greyhounds, Yorkshire Terriers, etc., I should not recommend even oil itself, but manna—one drachm to two drachms dissolved in milk. By simply getting the bowels to act once or twice, we shall have done enough for the first day, and have only to make the dog comfortable for the night.

On the next day begin with a mixture such as the following: Solution of acetate of ammonia, 30 drops to 120; sweet spirits of nitre, 15 drops to 60; salicylate of soda, 2 grains to 10. Thrice daily in a little camphor water.

If the cough be very troublesome and the fever does not run very high, the following may be substituted for this on the second or third day: Syrup of squills, 10 drops to 60; tincture of henbane, 10 drops to 60; sweet spirits of nitre, 10 drops to 60, in camphor water.

A few drops of dilute hydrochloric acid should be added to the dog's drink, and two teaspoonfuls (to a quart of water) of the chlorate of potash. This makes an excellent fever drink, especially if the dog can be got to take decoction of barley—barley-water—instead of plain cold water, best made of Keen and Robinson's patent barley.

If there be persistent sickness and vomiting, the medicine must be stopped for a time. Small boluses of ice frequently administered will do much good, and doses of dilute prussic acid, from one to four drops in a little water, will generally arrest the vomiting.

If constipation be present, we must use no rough remedies to get rid of it. A little raw meat cut into small pieces—minced, in fact—or a small portion of raw liver, may be given if there be little fever; if there be fever, we are to trust for a time to injections of plain soap-and-water. Diarrhoea, although often a troublesome symptom, is, it must be remembered, a salutary one. Unless, therefore, it becomes excessive, do not interfere; if it does, give the simple chalk mixture three times a day, but no longer than is needful.

The discharge from the mouth and nose is to be wiped away with a soft rag—or, better still, some tow, which is afterwards to be burned—wetted with a weak solution of carbolic. The forehead, eyes, and nose may be fomented two or three times a day with moderately hot water with great advantage.

It is not judicious to wet a long-haired dog much, but a short-haired one may have the chest and throat well fomented several times a day, and well rubbed dry afterwards. Heat applied to the chests of long-haired dogs by means of a flat iron will also effect good.

The following is an excellent tonic: Sulphate of quinine, 1/8 to 3 grains; powdered rhubarb, 2 to 10 grains; extract of taraxacum, 3 to 20 grains; make a bolus. Thrice daily.

During convalescence good food, Virol, Spratts' invalid food and invalid biscuit, moderate exercise, fresh air, and protection from cold. These, with an occasional mild dose of castor oil or rhubarb, are to be our sheet-anchors. I find no better tonic than the tablets of Phosferine. One quarter of a tablet thrice daily, rolled in tissue paper, for a Toy dog, up to two tablets for a dog of Mastiff size.


Dogs that have been exposed to wet, or that have been put to lie in a damp or draughty kennel with insufficient food, are not less liable than their masters to catch a severe cold, which, if not promptly attended to, may extend downward to the lining membranes of bronchi or lungs. In such cases there is always symptoms more or less of fever, with fits of shivering and thirst, accompanied with dullness, a tired appearance and loss of appetite. The breath is short, inspirations painful, and there is a rattling of mucus in chest or throat. The most prominent symptom, perhaps, is the frequent cough. It is at first dry, ringing, and evidently painful; in a few days, however, or sooner, it softens, and there is a discharge of frothy mucus with it, and, in the latter stages, of pus and ropy mucus.

Treatment—Keep the patient in a comfortable, well-ventilated apartment, with free access in and out if the weather be dry. Let the bowels be freely acted upon to begin with, but no weakening discharge from the bowels must be kept up. After the bowels have been moved we should commence the exhibition of small doses of tartar emetic with squills and opium thrice a day. If the cough is very troublesome, give this mixture: Tincture of squills, 5 drops to 30; paregoric, 10 drops to 60; tartar emetic, one-sixteenth of a grain to 1 grain; syrup and water a sufficiency. Thrice daily.

We may give a full dose of opium every night. In mild cases carbonate of ammonia may be tried; it often does good, the dose being from two grains to ten in camphor water, or even plain water.

The chronic form of bronchitis will always yield, if the dog is young, to careful feeding, moderate exercise, and the exhibition of cod-liver oil with a mild iron tonic. The exercise, however, must be moderate, and the dog kept from the water. A few drops to a teaspoonful of paregoric, given at night, will do good, and the bowels should be kept regular, and a simple laxative pill given now and then.


or looseness of the bowels, or purging, is a very common disease among dogs of all ages and breeds. It is, nevertheless, more common among puppies about three or four months old, and among dogs who have reached the age of from seven to ten years. It is often symptomatic of other ailments.

Causes—Very numerous. In weakly dogs exposure alone will produce it. The weather, too, has no doubt much to do with the production of diarrhoea. In most kennels it is more common in the months of July and August, although it often comes on in the very dead of winter. Puppies, if overfed, will often be seized with this troublesome complaint. A healthy puppy hardly ever knows when it has had enough, and it will, moreover, stuff itself with all sorts of garbage; acidity of the stomach follows, with vomiting of the ingesta, and diarrhoea succeeds, brought on by the acrid condition of the chyme, which finds its way into the duodenum. This stuff would in itself act as a purgative, but it does more, it abnormally excites the secretions of the whole alimentary canal, and a sort of sub-acute mucous inflammation is set up. The liver; too, becomes mixed up with the mischief, throws out a superabundance of bile, and thus aids in keeping up the diarrhoea.

Among other causes, we find the eating of indigestible food, drinking foul or tainted water, too much green food, raw paunches, foul kennels, and damp, draughty kennels.

Symptoms—The purging is, of course, the principal symptom, and the stools are either quite liquid or semi-fluid, bilious-looking, dirty-brown or clay-coloured, or mixed with slimy mucus. In some cases they resemble dirty water. Sometimes, as already said, a little blood will be found in the dejection, owing to congestion of the mucous membrane from liver obstruction. In case there be blood in the stools, a careful examination is always necessary in order to ascertain the real state of the patient. Blood, it must be remembered, might come from piles or polypi, or it might be dysenteric, and proceed from ulceration of the rectum and colon. In the simplest form of diarrhoea, unless the disease continues for a long time, there will not be much wasting, and the appetite will generally remain good but capricious.

In bilious diarrhoea, with large brown fluid stools and complete loss of appetite, there is much thirst, and in a few days the dog gets rather thin, although nothing like so rapidly as in the emaciation of distemper.

The Treatment will, it need hardly be said, depend upon the cause, but as it is generally caused by the presence in the intestine of some irritating matter, we can hardly err by administering a small dose of castor oil, combining with it, if there be much pain—which you can tell by the animal's countenance—from 5 to 20 or 30 drops of laudanum, or of the solution of the muriate of morphia. This in itself will often suffice to cut short an attack. The oil is preferable to rhubarb, but the latter may be tried—the simple, not the compound powder—dose from 10 grains to 2 drachms in bolus.

It the diarrhoea should continue next day, proceed cautiously—remember there is no great hurry, and a sudden check to diarrhoea is at times dangerous—to administer dog doses of the aromatic chalk and opium powder, or give the following medicine three times a day: Compound powdered catechu, 1 grain to 10; powdered chalk with opium, 3 grains to 30. Mix. If the diarrhoea still continues, good may accrue from a trial of the following mixture: Laudanum, 5 to 30 drops; dilute sulphuric acid, 2 to 15 drops; in camphor water.

This after every liquid motion, or, if the motions may not be observed, three times a day. If blood should appear in the stools give the following: Kino powder, 1 to 10 grains; powder ipecac., 1/4 to 3 grains; powdered opium 1/2 to 2 grains. This may be made into a bolus with any simple extract, and given three times a day.

The food is of importance. The diet should be changed; the food requires to be of a non-stimulating kind, no meat being allowed, but milk and bread, sago, or arrowroot or rice, etc. The drink either pure water, with a pinch or two of chlorate and nitrate of potash in it, or patent barley-water if the dog will take it.

The bed must be warm and clean, and free from draughts, and, in all cases of diarrhoea, one cannot be too particular with the cleanliness and disinfection of the kennels.


more commonly called costiveness, is also a very common complaint. It often occurs in the progress of other diseases, but is just as often a separate ailment.

Perhaps no complaint to which our canine friends are liable is less understood by the non-professional dog doctor and by dog owners themselves. Often caused by weakness in the coats of the intestine. The exhibition of purgatives can only have a temporary effect in relieving the symptoms, and is certain to be followed by reaction, and consequently by further debility. Want of exercise and bath common cause.

Youatt was never more correct in his life than when he said: “Many dogs have a dry constipated habit, often greatly increased by the bones on which they are fed. This favours the disposition to mange, etc. It produces indigestion, encourages worms, blackens the teeth, and causes fetid breath.”

Symptoms—The stools are hard, usually in large round balls, and defecation is accomplished with great difficulty, the animal often having to try several times before he succeeds in effecting the act, and this only after the most acute suffering. The faeces are generally covered with white mucus, showing the heat and semi-dry condition of the gut. The stool is sometimes so dry as to fall to pieces like so much oatmeal.

There is generally also a deficiency of bile in the motions, and, in addition to simple costiveness, we have more or less loss of appetite, with a too pale tongue, dullness, and sleepiness, with slight redness of the conjunctiva. Sometimes constipation alternates with diarrhoea, the food being improperly commingled with the gastric and other juices, ferments, spoils, and becomes, instead of healthy blood-producing chyme, an irritant purgative.

Treatment—Hygienic treatment more than medicinal. Mild doses of castor oil, compound rhubarb pill, or olive oil, may at first be necessary. Sometimes an enema will be required if the medicine will not act.

Plenty of exercise and a swim daily (with a good run after the swim), or instead of the swim a bucket bath—water thrown over the dog.

Give oatmeal, rather than flour or fine bread, as the staple of his diet, but a goodly allowance of meat is to be given as well, with cabbage or boiled liver, or even a portion of raw liver. Fresh air and exercise in the fields. You may give a bolus before dinner, such as the following: Compound rhubarb pill, 1 to 5 grains; quinine, 1/8 to 2 grains; extract of taraxacum, 2 to 10 grains. Mix.


Whatever be the cause, they are very alarming. In puppies they are called Convulsions, and resemble epileptic fits. Keep the dog very quiet, but use little force, simply enough to keep him from hurting himself. Keep out of the sun, or in a darkened room. When he can swallow give from 2 to 20 grains (according to size) of bromide of potassium in a little camphor water thrice daily for a few days. Only milk food. Keep quiet.


In the whole range of dog ailments included in the term canine pathology there are none more bothersome to treat successfully nor more difficult to diagnose than those of the skin. There are none either that afford the quack or patent-nostrum monger a larger field for the practice of his fiendish gifts. If I were to be asked the questions, “Why do dogs suffer so much from skin complaints?” and “Why does it appear to be so difficult to treat them?” I should answer the first thus: Through the neglect of their owners, from want of cleanliness, from injudicious feeding, from bad kennelling, and from permitting their favourites such free intercourse with other members of the canine fraternity. Overcrowding is another and distinct source of skin troubles.

My answer to the second question is that the layman too often treats the trouble in the skin as if it were the disease itself, whereas it is, generally, merely a symptom thereof. Examples: To plaster medicated oils or ointments all over the skin of a dog suffering from constitutional eczema is about as sensible as would be the painting white of the yellow skin in jaundice in order to cure the disordered liver.

But even those contagious diseases that are caused by skin germs or animalcules will not be wholly cured by any applications whatever. Constitutional remedies should go hand in hand with these. And, indeed, so great is the defensive power of strong, pure blood, rich in its white corpuscles or leucocytes, that I believe I could cure even the worst forms of mange by internal remedies, good food, and tonics, etc., without the aid of any dressing whatever except pure cold water.

In treating of skin diseases it is usual to divide them into three sections: (1) The non-contagious, (2) the contagious, and (3) ailments caused by external parasites.

(1) The Non-Contagious.—(a) Erythema.—This is a redness, with slight inflammation of the skin, the deeper tissues underneath not being involved. Examples—That seen between the wrinkles of well-bred Pugs, Mastiffs, or Bulldogs, or inside the thighs of Greyhounds, etc. If the skin breaks there may be discharges of pus, and if the case is not cured the skin may thicken and crack, and the dog make matters worse with his tongue.

Treatment—Review and correct the methods of feeding. A dog should be neither too gross nor too lean. Exercise, perfect cleanliness, the early morning sluice-down with cold water, and a quassia tonic. He may need a laxative as well.

Locally—Dusting with oxide of zinc or the violet powder of the nurseries, a lotion of lead, or arnica. Fomentation, followed by cold water, and, when dry, dusting as above. A weak solution of boracic acid (any chemist) will sometimes do good.

(b) Prurigo.—Itching all over, with or without scurf. Sometimes thickening.

Treatment—Regulation of diet, green vegetables, fruit if he will take it, brushing and grooming, but never roughly. Try for worms and for fleas.

(c) Eczema.—The name is not a happy one as applied to the usual itching skin disease of dogs. Eczema proper is an eruption in which the formed matter dries off into scales or scabs, and dog eczema, so-called, is as often as not a species of lichen. Then, of course, it is often accompanied with vermin, nearly always with dirt, and it is irritated out of all character by the biting and scratching of the dog himself.

Treatment—Must be both constitutional and local. Attend to the organs of digestion. Give a moderate dose of opening medicine, to clear away offending matter. This simple aperient may be repeated occasionally, say once a week, and if diarrhoea be present it may be checked by the addition of a little morphia or dilute sulphuric acid. Cream of tartar with sulphur is an excellent derivative, being both diuretic and diaphoretic, but it must not be given in doses large enough to purge. At the same time we may give thrice daily a tonic pill like the following:—

Sulphate of quinine, 1/8 to 3 grains; sulphate of iron, 1/2 grain to 5 grains; extract of hyoscyamus, 1/8 to 3 grains; extract of taraxacum and glycerine enough to make a pill.

Locally—Perfect cleanliness. Cooling lotions patted on to the sore places. Spratts' Cure. (N.B.—I know what every remedy contains, or I should not recommend it.) Benzoated zinc ointment after the lotion has dried in. Wash carefully once a week, using the ointment when skin is dry, or the lotion to allay irritation.

(2) Contagious Skin Diseases.—These are usually called mange proper and follicular mange, or scabies. I want to say a word on the latter first. It depends upon a microscopic animalcule called the Acarus folliculorum. The trouble begins by the formation of patches, from which the hair falls off, and on which may be noticed a few pimples. Scabs form, the patches extend, or come out on other parts of the body, head, legs, belly, or sides. Skin becomes red in white-haired dogs. Odour of this trouble very offensive. More pain than itching seems to be the symptomatic rule. Whole body may become affected.

Treatment—Dress the affected parts twice a week with the following:—

Creosote, 2 drachms; linseed oil, 7 ounces; solution of potash, 1 ounce. First mix the creosote and oil, then add the solution and shake. Better to shave the hair off around the patches. Kennels must be kept clean with garden soap and hot water, and all bedding burned after use. From three months to six will be needed to cure bad cases.

Mange Proper is also caused by a parasite or acarus, called the Sarcops canus. Unlike eczema, this mange is spread from dog to dog by touch or intercommunication, just as one person catches the itch from another.

The Symptoms—At first these may escape attention, but there are vesicles which the dog scratches and breaks, and thus the disease spreads. The hair gets matted and falls off. Regions of the body most commonly affected, head, chest, back, rump, and extremities. There may not be much constitutional disturbance from the actual injury to the skin, but from his suffering so much from the irritation and the want of rest the health suffers.

Treatment—Avoid the use of so-called disinfectants. Most of those sold as such are simply deodorisers, and, applied to the skin, are useless. Nor are they of much use in cleaning the kennels. Nothing suits better for woodwork than, first, carbolic wash, and then a thorough scrubbing with hot water and garden soap.

Some ointment must be used to the skin, and as I am writing for laymen only I feel chary in recommending such strong ones as the green iodide of mercury. If you do use it mix it with twice its bulk of the compound sulphur ointment. Do over only a part or two at a time. The dog to be washed after three days. But the compound sulphur ointment itself is a splendid application, and it is not dangerous.

(3) Skin Complaints from Vermin.—The treatment is obvious—get rid of the cause.

As their diagnosis is so difficult, whenever the dog-owner is in doubt, make certain by treating the dog not only by local applications but constitutionally as well. In addition to good diet, perfect cleanliness of coat, kennel, and all surroundings, and the application of the ointment or oil, let the dog have all the fresh air possible, and exercise, but never over-exciting or too fatiguing. Then a course of arsenic seldom fails to do good.

I do not believe in beginning the exhibition of arsenic too soon. I prefer paying my first attentions to the digestive organs and state of the bowels. The form of exhibition which I have found suit as well as any is the tasteless Liquor arsenicalis. It is easily administered. It ought to be given mixed with the food, as it ought to enter the blood with the chyle from the diet. It ought, day by day, to be gradually, not hurriedly, increased. Symptoms of loathing of food and redness of conjunctiva call for the cessation of its use for two or three days at least, when it is to be recommended at the same size of dose given when left off.

There are two things which assist the arsenic, at least to go well with it; they are, iron in some form and Virol. The latter will be needed when there is much loss of flesh. A simple pill of sulphate of iron and extract of liquorice may be used. Dose of Liquor arsenicalis from 1 to 6 drops ter die to commence with, gradually increased to 5 to 20 drops.

Dandruff.—A scaly or scurfy condition of the skin, with more or less of irritation. It is really a shedding of the scaly epidermis brought on by injudicious feeding or want of exercise as a primary cause. The dog, in cases of this kind, needs cooling medicines, such as small doses of the nitrate and chlorates of potash, perhaps less food. Bowels to be seen to by giving plenty of green food, with a morsel of sheep's melt or raw liver occasionally. Wash about once in three weeks, a very little borax in the last water, say a drachm to a gallon. Use mild soap. Never use a very hard brush or sharp comb. Tar soap (Wright's) may be tried.



We have, roughly speaking, two kinds of worms to treat in the dog: (1) the round, and (2) the tape.

(1) Round-worms—They are in shape and size not unlike the garden worm, but harder, pale, and pointed.

Symptoms—Sometimes these are alarming, for the worm itself is occasionally seized with the mania for foreign travel, and finds its way into the throat or nostrils, causing the dog to become perfectly furious, and inducing such pain and agony that it may seem charity to end its life. The worms may also crawl into the stomach, and give rise to great irritation, but are usually dislodged therefrom by the violence accompanying the act of vomiting.

Their usual habitat, however, is the small intestines, where they occasion great distress to their host. The appetite is always depraved and voracious. At times there is colic, with sickness and perhaps vomiting, and the bowels are alternately constipated or loose. The coat is harsh and staring, there usually is short, dry cough from reflex irritation of the bronchial mucous membrane, a bad-smelling breath and emaciation or at least considerable poverty of flesh.

The disease is most common in puppies and in young dogs. The appearance of the ascaris in the dog's stools is, of course, the diagnostic symptom.

Treatment—I have cured many cases with santonin and areca-nut powder (betel-nut), dose 10 grains to 2 drachms; or turpentine, dose from 10 drops to 1-1/2 drachms, beaten up with yolk of egg.

But areca-nut does better for tape-worm, so we cannot do better than trust to pure santonin. The dose is from 1 grain for a Toy up to 6 grains for a Mastiff. Mix it with a little butter, and stick it well back in the roof of the dog's mouth. He must have fasted previously for twelve hours, and had a dose of castor oil the day before. In four or five hours after he has swallowed the santonin, let him have a dose of either olive oil or decoction of aloes. Dose, 2 drachms to 2 ounces or more. Repeat the treatment in five days. Spratts' cure may be safely depended on for worms. [1]

[1] Many dog owners swear by the preparation called Ruby, which can be recommended as a cure for worms.—Ed.

The perfect cleanliness of the kennel is of paramount importance.

The animal's general health requires looking after, and he may be brought once more into good condition by proper food and a course of vegetable tonics. If wanted in show condition we have Plasmon to fall back upon, and Burroughs and Wellcome's extract of malt.

There is a round-worm which at times infests the dog's bladder, and may cause occlusion of the urethra; a whip-worm inhabiting the caecum; another may occupy a position in the mucous membrane of the stomach; some infest the blood, and others the eye.

(2) Tape-worms—There are several kinds, but the treatment is the same in all cases. The commonest in the country is the Cucumerine.

This is a tape-worm of about fifteen inches in average length, although I have taken them from Newfoundland pups fully thirty inches long. It is a semi-transparent entozoon; each segment is long compared to its breadth, and narrowed at both ends. Each joint has, when detached, an independent sexual existence.

The dog often becomes infested with this parasite from eating sheeps' brains, and dogs thus afflicted and allowed to roam at pleasure over fields and hills where sheep are fed sow the seeds of gid in our flocks to any extent. We know too well the great use of Collie dogs to the shepherd or grazier to advise that dogs should not be employed as assistants, but surely it would be to their owners' advantage to see that they were kept in a state of health and cleanliness.

Treatment—We ought to endeavour to prevent as well as to cure. We should never allow our dogs to eat the entrails of hares or rabbits. Never allow them to be fed on raw sheep's intestines, nor the brains of sheep. Never permit them to lounge around butchers' shops, nor eat offal of any kind. Let their food be well cooked, and their skins and kennels kept scrupulously clean. Dogs that are used for sheep and cattle ought, twice a year at least, to go under treatment for the expulsion of worms, whether they are infested or not; an anthelmintic would make sure, and could hardly hurt them.

For the expulsion of tape-worms we depend mostly on areca-nut. In order that the tape-worm should receive the full benefit of the remedy, we order a dose of castor oil the day before in the morning, and recommend no food to be given that day except beef-tea or mutton broth. The bowels are thus empty next morning, so that the parasite cannot shelter itself anywhere, and is therefore sure to be acted on.

Infusion of cusco is sometimes used as an anthelmintic, so is wormwood, and the liquid extract of male fern, and in America spigelia root and pumpkin seeds.

The best tonic to give in cases of worms is the extract of quassia.

Extract of quassia, 1 to 10 grains; extract of hyoscyamus, 1/2 to 5 grains. To make one pill. Thrice daily.



Washing with Spratts' medicated soap. Extra clean kennels. Dusting with Keating, and afterwards washing. This may not kill the fleas, but it drives them off. Take the dog on the grass while dusting, and begin along the spine. Never do it in the house.


I have noticed these disagreeable bloodsuckers only on the heads and bodies of sporting or Collie dogs, who had been boring for some time through coverts and thickets. They soon make themselves visible, as the body swells up with the blood they suck until they resemble small soft warts about as big as a pea. They belong to the natural family, Ixodiadae.

Treatment—If not very numerous they should be cut off, and the part touched with a little turps. The sulphuret of calcium will also kill them, so will the more dangerous white precipitate, or even a strong solution of carbolic acid, which must be used sparingly, however.


The lice are hatched from nits, which we find clinging in rows, and very tenaciously too, to the hairs. The insects themselves are more difficult to find, but they are on puppies sometimes in thousands. To destroy them I have tried several plans. Oil is very effectual, and has safety to recommend it. Common sweet oil is as good a cure as any, and you may add a little oil of anise and some sublimed sulphur, which will increase the effect. Quassia water may be used to damp the coat. The matted portions of a long-haired dog's coat must be cut off with scissors, for there the lice often lurk. The oil dressing will not kill the nits, so that vinegar must be used. After a few days the dressing must be repeated, and so on three or four times. To do any good, the whole of the dog's coat must be drenched in oil, and the dog washed with good dog soap and warm water twelve hours afterwards.